Wednesday, June 10, 2020

Just a Dream - Literature Essay Samples

[She] starts to sort it out, to turn over the day, scraps, feelings, words and laughter, all are like a thin layer of rubbish that [she] gathers up and throws into the basket (9). In A.B. Yehoshuas novel The Lover, Asya utilizes dreams to release her inner-tensions. Yehoshua employs Asyas dreams as symbolic, prophetic mechanisms that parallel the subtle, emotional conflicts within the characters and her self.Once Asya is deprived of her lover, Gabriel, she is consumed by his absence and immediately begins to dream about him. The first of Asyas dreams described in the novel reflects her unconscious desire to reunite with Gabriel and abandon her family. The dream places Asya within a military encampment as an educator on a fieldtrip, paralleling Gabriels own military excursion (14). Like the dreamer, the reader is also unable to make the connection between the dream and Gabriel, because both are uncertain of Gabriels military career at the novels onset. The faces of children from Dafis class that Asya encounters are analogous to the young, boyish faced men in Gabriels platoon (14, 297). While Dafis class attends compulsory education, the soldiers have been forced into military service. Dafis class also creates a commentary on the Zionist movement. Though the Zionist movement recently catalyzed the creation of an Israeli state, the Israelis must now defend their independence in the Yom Kippur War. The field trip in Asyas dream exposes the young children to war, corrupting their naivety and innocence. These children must be prepared; they must sacrifice their childhoods for war, because most Israelis believe their independence will continually be contested, regardless of the outcome of the Yom Kippur War.Like Gabriel, Asya is lost within the encampment; she does not understand her purpose, but eventually understands her position with the guidance of a superior. Asya is teaching the importance of history to war-weary adults who have had their educations cut short by war (15). The fact that Asya is teaching historys importance in her dream, presents another remark on Israeli independence. Israel is a multiracial Jewish state, an oasis within a desert of intolerant Arab nations. Asya, like most Israelis, believes there will never be a decisive victory for Israeli independence; there is a seemingly innate hatred between Arabs and Jews, as evidenced by their historical tensions.Asyas search for a missing piece of her past parallels the quest of her father. While Asya searches for Gabriel, her father searches the radio for the mention of Israel or his own name in the distant void (47). Asyas first dream gives the reader insight into the cause of her fathers ignominious deposal as head of the Ministry of Information and the rational behind his search to re-link himself with his past. Again, the dream occurs before Asyas fathers former occupation is revealed, thus inviting the reader to ignore the description. Its an old man wearin g a hat and hes walking down the wadi with such determination, receding in the distance toward the enemy lines. My heart stands still. He looks like my father. Is he here too? Does he belong here or not? Walking erect and excitedly down the rock-strewn ravine (15). The fact that her father is wearing a hat would suggest he is attempting a clandestine operation. The hat will cover his face, thus helping him to conceal his identity. Asyas father is crossing enemy lines alone, with determination; this suggests he may be sharing sensitive intelligence information with the aggressing nations for compensation, because the head of the intelligence department would not cross enemy lines alone during wartime, that is the task of a low level operative. After his removal from office, Asyas father is convinced that he is right, that an injustice has been done to him (46). Perhaps he had hoped to end the war through peaceful, diplomatic means. Then, fear within a dream created by fea r. Asya is overwhelmed with anxiety as her heart stands still. This suggests that Asya noticed her fathers illegal actions in real-time, and she is now haunted by their replay within her dreams. Her father is excited, implying that he believed he would not be caught, though he was. Asyas father walking down a ravine is symbolic of the difficult path he was forced to take to share intelligence secrets with other nations. War does not leave Asyas thoughts.Asyas second dream portrays the unconscious guilt she suffers from neglecting Dafi during wartime. Asya is trapped within her dream world after Gabriels departure; this causes harm to Dafis health as she becomes an insomniac. War creates civil disobedience. A gang of murders settles private scores within the city, and Asya is afraid for her daughter (29). This coincides with real-time, where Dafi is often alone but not forgotten. Despite Asyas worries, Dafi arrives safely, and the final segment of the dream becomes predictiv e of Adam eventually finding Gabriel. A murderer follows Dafi into the home; the murderers uninvited arrival parallels Gabriels unwelcome arrival from Dafi. Adam eventually subversively expels Gabriel from the home by making him register for the military; this is symbolic of Adam killing the murderer with a screwdriver. While Gabriel is a threat to Adam, Gabriel also deprived Dafi of a segment of her childhood by depriving her of her mother. By expelling Gabriel, Adam benefits Dafi as well. Asya screams at Adam, their lives are ruined (30). Asyas reaction foreshadows Adams eventual use of a screwdriver to find Gabriel and end his wifes ruined life (30).The screwdriver may also foretell Adams eventual affair with Tali and the murderer may actually signify Tali, who has come to disrupt Asyas home. The screwdriver may be phallic. The fact that Adam is trying to hide the big screwdriver may foretell how he attempts to cover-up his relationship with Tali (30).In Asyas next dream, she involuntarily explores her strained and loveless marriage. Asya is driving Adams car, which likely represents her marriage with Adam. The seat in the car is low, restricting her visibility. Like a marriage, Asya is forced to drive [both the marriage and car] on instincts (57). When Asya gets out of the car, she observes the vague dents, but believes Adam will repair them (57). This implies their marriage is repairable, but Adam must take initiative. When Asya finally arrives at home, her dream becomes prophetic. There are people in the house, they represent mourners (57). Yigal has died, which catalyzes the sudden chain reaction that destroys Asyas relationship with Adam. Upon closer inspection, the car is destroyed, foretelling the marriages destruction after Yigals unexpected death. Throughout the novel, Adam attempts to solve problems with money; a wrecked car would not cause pain in his face (58). His loveless marriage has consumed him, he has torn out his beard by the roots, scalped himself (58). The self mutilation of Adams beard symbolizes his loss of identity within his confused state after Yigals death. Asyas inability to look at the remnants of Adams beard reflects an unconscious blame. Asya blames Adam for Yigals death since Adam made the special hearing aide and Yigal is under Adams care when he is killed.The dream could also represent Asyas affair with Gabriel. There are obstacles to overcome within the affair, but like the car, nothing could stop [them] (57). Then the war comes, and the car comes to a halt. The people in the house may reflect that people within the community know of the affair, but are unwilling to become involved in the matter (57). The capsized car foreshadows the destruction of the affair (58). The cars destruction also indicates that Adam knows of the affair and foresees its end with the onset of the Yom Kippur War. Adam repairs the car himself by sending Gabriel to enlist in the military (57). Asyas inability to look at Adams changed physique echoes that Asya unconsciously wishes that Adam were fighting instead of Gabriel.Asyas next dream, like several of her other dreams, foretells Adams affair with Tali. Asya is alone in a classroom, paralleling the solitary setting of the hospital where Adam and Tali consummate their affair. There is a pile of sand still in the corner, suggestive of the inability of Adam and Tali to make love on the beach (83). Asya is getting nervous, eager to begin her lesson, just as Adam is anxious to sleep with Tali (84). The pubescent boy, the only student in Asyas class, takes down his trousers and stands in the corner naked, just as Tali stands in the corner like a trapped animal, exposing her little naked body for Adam (84, 261). Yehoshua attempts to make the parallel more obvious when Asya wants to tell the boy to come here, which is what Adam says to Tali to catalyze the affair (84, 258). Asyas inability to escape her dream world causes her husband to feel insecure. Adams affair with Tali is an achievement of manliness and lust as he becomes a lover, in search of a lover (262).The students sickly face, which is also used to characterize Gabriel, leaves the possibility that the student represents Gabriel and Asyas helpless desire for his love (84). Even though Asya is married, she feels a mixture of repulsion and desire for the boy; Asya experiences this same lust when she encounters Gabriel (84). When the boy finally leaves, Asya feels completely empty; the same way she feels after Gabriels departure (84). Asyas inability to escape her dream world makes her lust for Gabriel blatantly apparent to Adam and Dafi, who are victimized by her selfishness.Asyas subsequent dream provides insight into her affair with Gabriel. Adam, an expert mechanic who cares for Asya but is unable to fulfill her emotional and physical needs, parallels the wonderful dentist, who is unable to perform for Asya after falling asleep. While A dam provides the site for Asyas affair, the dentist supplies the office for Gabriel to use his instruments on Asyas mouth (110). While Gabriel is hired by Adam as a metaphorical prostitute who is supposed to assist his wife with translations, he is also hired by the dentist in an assistive capacity. While Adam is blind to his wifes affair, the dentist is asleep to his assistants actions. Gabriels instruments are undoubtedly phallic. Through his use of language such as his face tense with concentration and sliding gently into the hollow, Yehoshua makes Asyas dental experience metaphoric of sex (110). Dental assistants such as Gabriel would not touch a patient, yet Asya is overwhelmed by the sweetness of his light touch (110). In the final lines of the dream, Asya questions why she has come to the dentists office, which reflects her inner tension over the affair. The final lines may also reflect that Asya is unsatisfied by Gabriel but fears his departure. She fears disappointi ng him, but has no qualms with being a lifeless amoeba towards her husbands sexual desires.Asyas dreams portrayal of Adam as a sleeping dentist is also predictive of his affair with Tali. Tali arouses the sleeping dentist and inspires him to utilize his instruments. The hospital that Adam and Tali make love in parallels a dentists office. Everything in each room is sterile. Like a skilled dentist, Adam mechanically and methodically performs on Talis little naked body (261). Tali is paralyzed, she lies there like a dental patient, waiting for the pain to end.In Asyas sixth dream, Yigal, whose death precipitated Asyas affair and left an emotional void within the family, is being displaced by Naim, who is also assisting Asya in finding her lover. Asya is haunted by the memory of Yigal, but Naim has provided Asya with the physical imagery and personality to create an adolescent projection of Yigal within her dreams. In Asyas dream, Yigal rides back and forth on the broad pavement with his bicycle, he is tall and thin, unknowingly taunting his mother who has been emotionally troubled since his death (180). This parallels Naim, who tests the patience of a Jewish family that has been conditioned to hate him and his people. While Naim is hindered by race, Yigal is hindered by his disability. Asyas family accepts both of them despite each of their social stigmas. Yigals bicycle is very colorful, shining, loaded with gears, cog wheels and coils of wire, reflecting Yigals desire for social acceptance and paralleling Naims quest (180). Naim has adapted to Jewish culture through subtractive assimilation. Naim blends in amongst Jews, they no longer recognize that he is an Arab while Yigal attends regular school and people sometimes forget that he is deaf.Then, in the middle of the dream, Asya realizes that it isnt Yigal but some kind of replacement that Adam has brought for [her], which is obviously Naim (180). This reflects Asyas unconscious resistance to for getting her lost son while also further emphasizing Naims ability to blend in amongst Jews. Asya then calls after Yigals replacement, signifying her unconscious desperation for a son, a legacy. On the surface, Asya refuses Adam this legacy, for fear of losing another son or perhaps because she is too old, and suffers from barrenness. [Naim] hears her and understands, but takes advantage of his deafness to ignore Asya, this is representative of the special bond between Adam and Yigal that has now vicariously survived through Naim (181). The dream shows that even though Asya would like to penetrate this obscure relational bubble, her attempts are unsuccessful.The conclusion of Asyas dream foretells Naims eventual, unexpected departure from the family and the impregnation of Dafi. When Naim leaves the family, it is unexpected, much like the death of Yigal. Naim resigns from his position as caretaker while Yigal resigns from life. The seed that Naim leaves in Dafis womb is symbol ized by the departed replacement that leaves behind a transistor that picks up a newscaster saying life she has come to life (181). The dream that follows this one drifts from the genres of the previous dreams.In Asyas next dream, she parallels the formation of African republics with the formation of Israeli. Like Israelis, the African brags of his renewed land (222). The new settlements are being built in Africa and Israel even though the rest of the world will not invest in either land (222). Yehoshua explicitly describes the African man as a giant negro, eliminating the possibility of the man representing Libya or Egypt from the Yom Kippur War (222). The giant negro is likely from central Africa, where Africans are generally looked at with condescending sneers by their neighbors, just as Israelis are generally despised throughout the Middle East (222). Asya is dreaming about this because she is obviously troubled by this renewed land, because its preservation has caused Gab riels departure. Then the African shows her a long, obstinate and definitive line within a picture (222). The line is symbolic of several things. One possibility is that the line represents the equality Israel and Africa are striving for. The other possibility is that the line represents the senseless arbitrariness of the lines that make up the boundaries of countries. Wars are generally over boundaries; the Yom Kippur War is no different. Israel expanded its borders in the Yom Kippur War, and this may be upsetting to Asya, whose lover is fighting in the war.In Asyas subsequent dream, she once again becomes consumed by Gabriels disappearance. Asyas dream takes place in the kitchen, where she is preparing fish. The vivid imagery of Asya slicing the white bodies to remove the inner organs, [her] hands covered with blood and guts, metaphorically parallels the atrocities of war experienced by Gabriel (232). The reader is made clear of this symbolism when Gabriel is suddenly pla ced within the dream. Then, the dream foreshadows Gabriels discovery. Asya is angry, desperate for his love, she is hoping that perhaps he will touch her (232). Gabriels appearance in the dream prophesizes that he is still alive and that Adam will find him. In her dream, Gabriel has a matured face, symbolic of the atrocities of war catalyzing his aging process (232). When Gabriel leaves, Asya viciously attacks the unchanging calendar with blood stained hands (232). The blood on Asyas hands is symbolic of her guilt for allowing Gabriel to enlist; she would feel responsible for his death. The immutable calendar is symbolic of the unending search for Gabriel that has seemingly halted the progress of Asyas life.In her final dream, Asya prophesizes the impregnation of Dafi while simultaneously emphasizing her fear of interminable war. The dream begins with Asya and her family trapped within Afghanistan, amongst fields of corn (wheat), even though Afghanistan is generally characte rized as a desert land where irrigation is difficult (265). Wheat symbolizes life, even though the historical context of the dream places the family within an intense military conflict between the Soviet Union and the Taliban regime that has left only twelve percent of the region capable of cultivation. Not a seed of man but a seed of corn (wheat) has impregnated Dafi; this signifies Dafis susceptibility to pregnancy as a teenager (265). Dafi will conceive a field mouse, something frightful, representing the poison of Naims Arab seed within Dafis body. Adam settles the entire business without consulting Asya, this parallels the final seen, when Adam takes Naim back to his village without asking for opinions.Asyas dreams provide readers with a glance into the future direction of the storyline while subtly addressing otherwise unanswerable questions within the novel and attacking two principles that were responsible for Israeli independence: Zionism and war. Dreams operate on the unconscious. Asyas dreams attack the readers unconscious. Without conscious and unconscious critical analysis of Asyas dreams, the reader is left with many ambiguous answers and character connection that can only be solidified through her dreams. The readers only access to Asyas character is through her subconscious and her interaction through the eyes of other characters. This creates a slanted perspective. Perhaps Asya never had an affair with Gabriel and she is simply a victim of the paranoia of her husband and daughter we never learn of Asyas actions in real-time. Perhaps all of Asyas dreams are simply taboo impulses that she never intends to act upon.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Successful In Avoiding Dismissals - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1269 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Chemistry Essay Did you like this example? Enzyme was introduced by Kiihne in 1878, even though the first observation of enzyme activity in a test tube was done by Payen and Persoz in 1833. Enzymes are specialized proteins that make cellular work possible in all cells by helping chemical reaction to occur. these chemical reaction speed up the chemical activity by increasing the reaction rate, or rate at which a reaction occurs, measured in terms of reactant used or product formed per unit time. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Successful In Avoiding Dismissals" essay for you Create order Enzymes are globular proteins with depressions on their surfaces; these depressions are called active site, where the substrate fit and where the catalysts occur. Substrate fit closely to the active sites because enzymes can adjust their shapes slightly to accommodate the substrate. This process involves three- dimensional shape, of enzymes when the substrate binds to it. The change in shape of the active site to accommodate the substrate is called induced fit, and this process brings the functional group on the enzymes into the proper orientation with the substrate to catalyze the reaction. Various substances can inhibit the action of the enzymes which can cause the enzyme to shut down its activity. Non inhibition is and inhibitor molecules that binds at a site know as allosteric site which prevents the three dimensional structure of an enzyme from binding to the active site. The competitive inhibition involves a chemical compounds that bind to the active site of the enzymes and inhibit enzymatic reactions. The compound competes with the true substrate for the access to the active site. This completion is possible because competitive inhibitors are very similar in shape and structure to the enzymes substrate. Allosteric inhibition has two active sites, one for a substrate and one for an inhibitor. When the inhibitor binds to the active site, the enzyme undergoes a change, the active site for the substrate is changed which causes the enzyme not to catalyze the reaction. Inhibitors cause the allosteric enzyme to take up the inactive shape, where activators support the active shape. Another type of inhibition is called feedback inhibition; this is a type of non-competitive inhibition in which the end product of the pathway binds at an allosteric site on the first enzyme of the pathway. In cells, enzyme inhibition is usually reversible, that is because the inhibitor is not permanently bound to the enzymes. Inhibition of enzymes can also be irreversible. In c ompetitive inhibition the inhibitor is similar in structure to the substrate and it binds to the enzyme at the active site. In feedback inhibition, the inhibitor binds to the enzyme at a site away from the active site and acts by changing the shape of the enzyme in a way so that it is incapable of catalyzing the reaction. Feedback inhibition is a natural part of the process by which an organism regulates the chemical reactions that take place in its cells. Like most chemical reactions, the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction increases as the temperature is increased. So generally, as temperature increases so does the rate of reaction, however high temperature can cause denaturation of the enzyme. Enzyme activity can also be affected by pH, in the same way that every enzyme has a critical temperature, so each enzyme also has a critical pH at which it works best. In the case of catalase, the most favorable pH is approximately pH 7.0. The catalase works best at a neutral pH, if the solution is too acidic, or too basic the catalase is inactive and no longer functions as an enzyme. Catalase is a common enzyme found in a living organism it can found in the liver. Its functions include catalyzing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Catalase is necessary because Hydrogen peroxide is a harmful by-product of many normal metabolic processes, to prevent damage; catalase is frequently used by cells to rapidly catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into less reactive gaseous oxygen and water molecules. Observation Chart Test tube/degree Celsius Height of bubbles(mm) / Reaction Time 30sec. 20 3mm 25 3mm 30 20mm 35 25mm 40 28mm 45 42mm 50 50mm 55 20mm 60 5mm Figure 1.0 Figure 2.0 Hypothesis: The enzymes activity increase as temperature increases but only up to a maximum point (35o-42o). If the temperature increases beyond this point, the enzymes activity decreases because the enzymes have been denaturized. When this happens, its shape changes and it can no longer bind to its substrate. Procedure: Take 4-5 test tubes and fill them with 4drops of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and to do this you will need a nose dropper. You also need a test tube fill with live in it so you can take another nose drop to put the liver in test tube to react with hydrogen peroxide, put only 2-3 drops of liver in hydrogen peroxide. You also need a beaker and a hot plate to test the enzyme at different temperature. Make sure that all the test tube the liver one and the hydrogen peroxides one are in the beaker when you are heating the beaker up because you everything to be at the same temperature while doing the experiment. Do not mix the liver and the hydrogen peroxide with the liver before heating it up because it will react immediately and you want to test it at different temperature. Use a thermometer to calculate the temperature and when you see the temperature you wanted take the beaker off the hotplate because if dont take off the beaker it will increase the temperature. Then use a nose dropper to take the liver out of the test tube and put 3 drops of liver in hydrogen peroxide and make sure that everything is the beaker. Calculate the time for 30 seconds and measure the height of the bubbles with your ruler. Materials: To do this lab you will need 5 test tubes, a beaker that can easily fit 5 test tubes in it, a hot plate 2 nose droppers, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and liver as an enzyme, and a thermometer to calculate the temperature. Purpose: The purpose of the lab is to determine the temperature affect on catalase activity and at what temperature is enzyme at its maximum point and at what temperature it drops rapidly. Discussion: Temperature can affect the rate of an enzyme reaction as they increase or decrease. Molecules collide much faster as the temperature increases causing increases in the rate of a reaction. Temperature increase the collision rate which makes the substrate collide with the active site of the enzyme, therefore increasing the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Above the critical point, activity begins to decline because the enzyme begins to denature the rate of chemical reactions therefore increasing the temperature above the critical point will then decreases as enzymes denature. Most human enzymes functions best at 35 -40 degree Celsius. Below this temperature range, enzymes are less flexible and therefore less able to provide and induced fit to substrate. Above this range bonds become weaker and less able to hold peptide chains in the enzyme in the proper orientation. But as you can look at the observation table the enzyme worked 10 degrees above that temperature and then denature d which bring to a conclusion of an error or contamination in either test tube, liver or the substrate which was H2O2. Conclusion: Determining the effect of temperature on catalase activity by increasing the temperature and to test the rate of the reaction was part of the lab where as the temperature increased so did the reaction as expected, but the reaction did go above the critical point before getting denaturized. To sum up, the result that was gained after the experiment was not precise to the hypothesis.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Not-So-Familial Bonds The Fall of a Dynasty - 1082 Words

There is an old saying that says that blood is thicker than water but I believe that many of the characters that were depicted in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet are not in support of this claim. There is Hamlet’s father, who was actually the king of Denmark up until his untimely demise, which was orchestrated by his own brother – the villainous Claudius. Hamlet’s mother Gertrude then goes on to marry his uncle, which shifts the power that would’ve been in Hamlet’s favor to Claudius, who then becomes the king of Denmark. The actions of Claudius and Gertrude send Hamlet through a whirlwind of emotions, from grief to revenge. He dislikes his mother and her decision of marrying Claudius so soon after his father dies and he loathes Claudius after he soon discovers what he has done. When one things of family, one thinks of good qualities like loyalty and love but when it comes to this royal family there is everything but. Certain members of this fami ly operate from a place of greed, gluttony, envy and jealousy, one appears to operate from naivetà © and the other operates from pure angry, hatred and revenge. When Claudius is first introduced to the reader he comes off as an extremely intelligent, noble character. He addresses the kingdom and the court with a stirring speech in regards to the death of his brother and how the court is going to be taken under his leadership. Claudius comes off as very likable person to the public after this but is a different man behind the faà §ade. InShow MoreRelated The Sound and the Fury Essay6993 Words   |  28 Pageschronology, another area focused on by critics. Chronology in The Sound and the Fury moves to a completely different beat than the traditional notion of chronological order. Jean Paul Sartre argues that Faulkner did not first conceive this orderly plot so as to shuffle it afterward like a pack of cards; he could not tell it in any other way (87). Benjy’s section of the novel contains Faulkner’s finest manipulation of chronological order. Told through the eyes and mind of a thirty-three year old handicappedRead Moretheme of alienation n no where man by kamala markandeya23279 Words   |  94 PagesPolynices, a decent burial. She consciously risks her life with this action, which violates both Creon’s unjust decree, as well as the ancient custom of denying burial to enemies of the state. She obeys only the laws of the gods and the dictates of familial loyalty and social decency. Antagonist King Creon regards only the requirement of political expediency. Soon after the civil strife between Eteocles and Polynices ends in their deaths, he announces a decree denying Polynices’ burial. He is unrelentingRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesbroadly. As the essays in this collection document in detail, paradox pervades the time span we call the twentieth century, no matter how it is temporally delineated. Never before in history, for example, had so many humans enjoyed such high standards of living, and never had so many been so impoverished or died of malnutrition and disease. If the period from the 1870s is included in a long twentieth century (and perhaps even if it is not), migration served as a mode of escape from oppressionRead More THE IMPACT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN IMPROVING STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES65118 Words   |  261 Pagesfocus of the thesis. Knowledge management builds upon a human-centred approach that views organizations as complex systems that spring from the unique organizational contexts in which they are developed. It is still a nascent organizational practice, so as of yet there is no agreed upon definition for knowledge management. Therefore, it is generally described as broadly as possible, such as the following specified by Prusak (1997): knowledge management is any process or practice of creating, acquiring

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Social Classes, Prostitution and Jack the Ripper in the...

After the Age of Enlightenment in the mid 18th century in England, the tension between the social classes intensified even more. A huge gap generated between the aristocrats and the working class, but dozens of new layers of society appeared. While the rich lived to the fullest, the lower class starved and needed to find alternative ways of money making. Prostitution became more and more widespread, which lead to an inequality and social stratification between poor and rich and due to the economical crisis the number of prostitutes grew from year to year. Aristocrats and nobility looked down on the working class with judgement and disgust, and when prostitution became legalized in England after the Contagious Diseases Acts it made a big†¦show more content†¦In this century, the 3 categories of classes couldn’t be more different and separated. The upper class enjoyed leisure, operas, balls and everything what had to do something with luxury and what none of the lower classes could afford. Aristocracy was well known by their morals and etiquette in the Victorian ages. The Victorian Aristocratic views on morals were extinguished which was even prudish. Prudery went as far as sexuality was a taboo, human body must have been covered and talking about body was inappropriate. In the Victorian Era society started to have different values in morality. Upper class people had low tolerance for sexuality and crimes, and isolated from any of the lower class members. Thus sexuality, especially prostitution was not acceptable and eminently discriminates in the Victorian high society. In the Victorian Era it was so inappropriate to talk about sexuality, it is hard to find anything in literature that could connect the irreproachable and honorable aristocracy to prostitution in any ways. Although, the best patrons of these working women were always the nobility. To tell exactly how many prostitutes were in Britain in the 19th century would be an absolutely f utile attempt, since the â€Å"hidden prostitution† problem due to brothels, and the stuffed small homes where too many people lived all together. It was widely recognized that theShow MoreRelatedThe Victorian Era Of Victorian England1856 Words   |  8 Pagesalthough their rights would not be equal until the 20th Century, Victorian women started the idea. This essay looks at 5 key areas of Victorian life to show the gender and sexuality issues that existed. First, it will describe the Victorian idea of ‘separate spheres’ for men and women. Second, it will look at education and work to show how difficult it was for women to be successful. Third, the essay will describe married life in Victorian England to show how this was very business like and something

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about Adoption and Diffusion - 2085 Words

Adoption and Diffusion The emergence of the basic paradigm for early diffusion research [was] created by two rural sociologists at Iowa State University, Bryce Ryan and Neal C. Gross and gained recognition when they published the results of their hybrid corn study(Valente and Rogers, 1995, paragraph 1 ) in 1943. Post World War II agriculture experienced a boom in technological innovation and as a result†¦U.S. farms became business enterprises rather than family-subsistence units†¦concerned with productivity, efficiency, competitiveness, and agricultural innovations(Valente and Rogers, 1995, paragraph 11 ). These concerns lead to many agricultural studies based on the diffusion paradigm developed by Ryan and Gross. In their†¦show more content†¦Ryan and Gross’ hybrid corn study based on the diffusion of innovations theory helped rural sociologists†¦gain favor and support from their university administrators. Diffusion research fit well with the dominant norm on increasing agri cultural production(Valente and Rogers, 1995, paragraph 10 ). Later the acceptance of the diffusion theory would be accelerated when the Subcommittee for the Study of Diffusion of Farm Practices, of the North Central Rural Sociology Committee helped form an invisible college of rural sociological diffusion researchers in the midwestern state universities in the 1950s and the 1960s (Valente and Rogers, 1995, paragraph 5 ). Until the 1960s, only rural sociologists were interested in the diffusion paradigm but it spread to other scientific specialties, such as public health, economics, geography, marketing, political science, and communication(Valente and Rogerss, 1995, paragraph 14 ). Everett M. 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The Policy Diffusion Framework examines how the influence of neighboring states and other governments influence each other to implement different policies. The Framework is a resource policy practitioners use to contrast and explain policy innovation and whatRead More Rogers Diffusion and Adoption Research Essay1560 Words   |  7 PagesRogers Diffusion and Adoption Research Why do technology initiatives fail despite their promises and boundless possibilities? From integrating technology in education to introducing technological innovation in agriculture, users acceptance presents a complex set of challenges to innovation diffusion. According to Everett Rogers, one reason why there is so much interest in the diffusion of innovations is because getting a new idea adopted, even when it has obvious advantages, isRead MoreConsumer E Health Innovations And Patient Acceptance968 Words   |  4 Pages although not all patients embrace this innovation. The theory, diffusion of innovations, refers to the process by which a new idea, object, or practice filters through various channels in a community over time (Sharma Romas, 2012, p. 228). The application of diffusion of innovations theory to consumer e-Health portrays innovation as a new idea and influences consumers into adoption of innovation. In the article Using Diffusion of Innovation theory to Understand the Factors Impacting PatientRead MoreUnderstanding Nursing Practices: An Assignment1480 Words   |  6 PagesUnderstanding Nursing Understanding Nursing A: Von Bertalaniffy. (1969). General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications (Revised Edition). George Braziller Inc. 0807604534. Everett M. Rogers: (1997). Diffusion of Innovations Theory. HYPERLINK clusters/Communication and Information clusters/Communication and Information Technology B: Drack, Manfred. (2007). On the Making ofRead MoreTransformational Leadership And Transformational Leaders1345 Words   |  6 Pagestransformational leaders are involved. This leads to the question of the current study: â€Å"What does the literature have to say about adoption of the innovation and transformational leadership?† The purpose of the current study is to conduct a rapid assessment of the innovation literature to explore the extent to which transformational leadership influences diffusion and adoption of innovation and to provide several topics for future research. The transformational school of leadership was discussed in detailRead MorePrivatization Reform During Latin America769 Words   |  4 Pageshistories, I have argued that diffusion theories fall short to explain education privatization. The understanding of the expansion of privatization in Latin America requires that we lend explanatory power to the domestic level. First, timing is a crucial factor shaping diffusion. The empirical evidence provided here shows that market-based models can only displace the traditional state-sponsored provision when they are transferred at a critical juncture. If the policy diffusion does not coincide with suchRead MoreA New Technology1094 Words   |  5 Pagesusers. The communication and information provided about the product plays a big role in early adoption. Releasing the development kit online and the Game Developer’s Conference presentations would generate a lot of interest and buzz for the product and this interest can be sustained with meaningful and directed information sharing. The gaming community is well connected and a lot of adoption and diffusion of innovation happens through word-of-mouth or by an influential change agent. Pricing is alsoRead MoreModels For Diffusion Of Innovations Among Potential Adopters807 Words   |  4 PagesModels for diffusion of innovations among potential adopters have been recently used to study the life cycle of new products and to forecast first-purchase sales. Those models are useful for managers as decision aids to create and perform strategies to maintain the profitability of new products across their life cycle. Bass (1969) pioneered this area of research with a model for diffusions of new products under peer pressure via word-of-mouth. This model distinguished two parameters: innovation andRead MoreMy Thoughts On Diffusion Of Innovation1157 Words   |  5 PagesMy Thoughts on the Diffusion of Innovation Entering the second week of innovation class, the topic is about the diffusion of innovation. As I have mentioned before in my first learning log, innovation needs to be managed as a whole process and I thought that the diffusion of innovation plays a vital role in that process in which commercialization is the part of it. As I have already had the experiences on the diffusion of innovation, therefore, I will elaborate more about it that linked with myRead MoreThe Failure Of Sanitation Intervention1260 Words   |  6 Pagesa. Diffusion of Innovation is explanatory to the failure of sanitation intervention in Peru. Innovation refers to an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. In this case, the innovation is the idea of sanitation which is perceived as new by this specific population. There are five characteristics of the innovation: Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Complexity, Trialability and Observability. Sanitation is obviously better than non-sanitation

Machiavelli, A Founding Father Free Essays

Machiavelli advocated centralization and concentration of power in The Prince while the authors of the Federalist Papers call for the separation of powers and a system of checks and balances.   The Prince, however, was a job application to Lorenzo di Medici the son of Piero di Medici.   Lorenzo had just inherited the principality of   Florence by settlement of a war with the Pope and his mercenaries ( Lerner xxvii) in 1512. We will write a custom essay sample on Machiavelli, A Founding Father? or any similar topic only for you Order Now Machiavelli, was however, not as alien to the ideas of the Convention espoused by the various   Federalist Papers.  Ã‚   For much of his life he was staunchly republican in his outlook; the loss of the Florentine Republic and his position as an advisor to the powerful were powerful motivators to write a pro-monarchy text to regain his former position in the new state.( Lerner xxviii) During this imposed exile from the halls of power Machiavelli’s works included the Discourses, an analysis of the Roman Republic, its power structure, and its defects.   In The Discourses Machiavelli is plainly pro-republic, though he also manages to treat the issue of a monarchy as well.   Machiavelli’s ideas are included to some degree in the Federalist Papers and the Constitution of the United States. Machiavelli, Hamilton, Jay, and Madison would all find agreement in some of the most important aspects of the governing of a Republic; including the use of a standing army and the separation of powers. Standing Army The issue of a standing army was a touchy one for the convention.   The military was part of the executive power and a standing army could be abused.   Indeed he warns of this in Federalist #8 : But in a country, where the perpetual menacings of danger oblige the government to always be prepared to repel it, her armies are must be numerous enough for instant defence.†Ã‚  Ã‚   The importance of the of the soldier is enhanced and the military state is elevated above the civil. In territories that are often the theatre of war , are unavoidably subjected to frequent violation of their rights; and by degrees the people come to consider the soldier their superiors. ( #8, p35)However , the Convention left the raising of regular troops solely under the authority of   Congress, and not the President. Thus   they are under the control of the people; the Congress shall decide when a standing military is necessary; before a President has them to Command.   Hamilton says that the power to maintain a standing army in time of peace is a necessary caution given the fact that the Dominions of Britain and Spain border the fledgling nation.(#24, p120). Machiavelli would agree: â€Å"Such princes and republics of modern times as have no national troops for defense or attack ought well to be ashamed of it†¦.† (prince 175) and I conclude, therefore, that no principality is secure without having its own forces† (Prince pg 52-53) Separation of Powers The separation of powers has been regarded as the hallmark of republican principles.   The separation of power among three distinct branches of government prevents any one person from acting as â€Å"legislator, judge, and executioner.†Ã‚   In this way the abuse of power leading to Tyranny is avoided. Machiavelli states much the same in The Discourses: ALL those who have written upon civil institutions demon- strate (and history is full of examples to support them) that whoever desires to found a state and give it laws, must start with assuming that all men are bad and ever ready to display their vicious nature, whenever they may find occasion for it. ( 117) An early form of the system checks and balances was the formation of the Tribunes in the Roman Republic.   The Tribunes served to act as a sort of Legislative judge curbing and investigating alleged excesses by the Senators of Rome.( Machiavelli, â€Å"Discourses†, 118)   The Convention went further; it gave executive authority to the President, but withheld the purse, and it gave the Sword to Congress but required the Executive to wield it, and gave the Law to Congress but allowed both the Justice and Executive to disapprove it, gave Congress the means to remove an executive or a justice from office, but made the members of Congress answerable to the whole of the People. Madison says that â€Å"The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judicial in the same hands, whether of one, of few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of Tyranny.†(Carey lxx)  Ã‚   So both men believed that the separation of powers in a Republic is a fundamental principle defending the liberty of the citizen.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Both men also believed that the authority of the supreme executive should to some respect be stronger than that of the regional powers. While the Federal system resembles more closely the â€Å"Prince and Baron† model warned against by Machiavelli; through well-thought out assignment of the powers to the Federal Government the position of the regional powers (Governors of the States) approach the â€Å"Prince and Servants† model advocated by him.   The Convention took the middle ground with the powers of the Executive (federal) being supreme only in its assigned sphere and that of the regional to be supreme within its own sphere.   Conflicts between States and the Federal authority were to be resolved by the Supreme Court.   Therefore no one State was in a position to help outside enemies to oppose the Federal government, but simultaneously the Federal authority could not rule by fiat as a Prince might have done. Conclusion: So which model was more capable of maintaining order and curtailing disorder from below?   History seems to indicate that the careful checks and balances and the general separation of powers have been more enduring than a centralized Monarchy.   France proved the wisdom of the system of checks and balances when the National Assembly seized all power for the purpose of reforming the government.   This attempt, while its aims were noble, failed catastrophically and subjected the People of France to a series of tyrants, emperors, and various violations of their civil liberties for nearly a century. Absolute Monarchy as Machiavelli said, is stable only so long as the ruler is ruthless when necessary and is either loved or feared by its people.   The problem seems to be that this merely builds up pressure in the people; who will begin to rebel the moment any hesitation by the monarch is shown either internally or through circumstance such as war.   This process happened on a world-wide scale and was experienced by Britain, France, Egypt, Iran, and may be happening now in Saudi Arabia and the Emirates of the Middle East. Machiavelli states that all laws of liberty come from the open opposition in the legislature between two classes; the Nobles and the People.(Machiavelli,   â€Å"Discourses†, p119)   The constitution eliminated the Nobility but a similar problem of factions: Those who have power, those who want power, those who want to oppress.   In a similar fashion to the Tribunes of Rome the various divisions of power executive, legislative, judicial, the National, and the Regional allow open discussion and opposition without providing any overt favor to one faction over another;( Madison, â€Å"Federalist #10†, pp 42-48) ensuring that laws of liberty continue to come from the discourses of those vying for power. ( Madison, â€Å"Federalist #10†, pp42-48) The Republican ideas that Machiavelli held and published in his works might well mark him as one of the founders of   the modern republic along with Locke, Montesque, and the other Enlightenment philosophers. Works Cited Carey, George W. and James McClellan. Reader’s Guide. The Federalist. By   Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison. Indianapolis:   Liberty Fund 2001 Hamilton, Alexander, John Jay, and James Madison. The Federalist. Ed. George W. Carey and James McClellan. The Gideon Edition. Indianapolis:   Liberty Fund 2001 Learner, Max. Introduction.   The Prince and the Discourses. By Niccolo Machiavelli. New York: Random House 1950 Machiavelli, Niccolo. â€Å"The Prince†. Ed. E.R.P Vincent. Trans. Luigi Ricci. The Prince and the Discourses. New York: Random House 1950 Machiavelli, Niccolo. â€Å"The Discourses†.   Trans. Christian E. Detmold. The Prince and the Discourses. New York: Random House 1950          How to cite Machiavelli, A Founding Father?, Essay examples

Criminological Introduction and Evaluation â€Myassigmenthelp.Com

Question: What, if anything, can a theory of your choice usefully add to our understanding of a contemporary crime, safety or security issue of your choice?. Answer: The issue of crime has become a matter of huge importance in the present world that is infested with social crimes such as theft, robbery, murder, rape, and many more. While usually in most of the societies, the perpetrator of crime is being heavily punished for having committed the crime, there are various theories which seek to trace the underlying reason behind the perpetration of such crimes. One such important theory of crime is known as the Social Structure Theory which emphasizes that factors such as poverty, lack of access to basic education, absence of marketable skills lead to crime such as theft (Taylor et al. 2013). This kind of insightful and explanatory theory is useful in understanding and gaining an in-depth analysis of the main reason behind the occurrence of crimes. Conflict theory is one of the most important theories under the Social structure theory that can effectively help to understand the reason behind the increasing rate of theft and robbery (Vito 2015). Conflict theory is an important theory of social psychology that defines crime not merely as a nefarious act in itself, but essentially an act that emerges from the glaring socio-economic distinction existing within a society. The conflict theory has its origin in Marxism, as according to Marx and Engels, there will always remain an internal tension and a huge conflict between the two sections of the society- the wealthy ruling class and the poor, deprived class devoid of any wealth and property (McShane 2013). As a result of the shocking difference, the lower strata of the society often feel deceived and deprived, and hence they have the potentiality to resort to the unfair and illegal means of earning livelihood and expanding wealth. Poverty plays an important role in the criminal activity undertaken by the thieves and the robbers and hence crime is often considered as nothing short of a social construct. In the recent studies conducted in UK, it was being discovered that the place where poverty is found is usually the place where crime is traced as well (Reiman and Leighton 2015). Hence, there is an unmistakable connection between theft and poverty. The question that arises over here is that what leads to the inextricable connection between theft and poverty. The impoverished people are usually regarded as unskilled and uneducated by the society, but Marx points out that this is nothing but false consciousness, as the poor ones inherit poverty through different generations (Mathhews et al. 2014). While the rich get richer, the poor get poorer owing to their inability to gain access to money, education and other important resources of life. As a result of this ever-growing distinction, the people belonging to the low socio-economic status are often tempted to take recourse to robbery and theft. This can be regarded as an act that is guided by the feeling of hatred, jealousy and grudge towards the economically powerful section of the society. By stealing and r obbing the richer people, the impoverished thief intends to eliminate the socio-economic distinction that exists between the two classes. Again, at the same time the act of robbery is also an example of the frustration, disgust and malice of the poorer section of the society, who have been resenting the unjust distinction of the capitalistic society that is chiefly responsible for poverty (Maddah 2013). The conflict theory upholds that in a capitalist society there is always a sense of inequality, oppression and exploitation, as a result of which there is always a sense of inherent conflict that exists within a society (Lanier 2014). Max Weber has argued that conflict does not only arise out of the unequal distribution of money and wealth, but out of the glaring distinction regarding status and economic power and social respect. While some people are born amidst wealth, others are born to suffer from poverty and lack of opportunity, and most importantly in both the cases, the infant born, has no power or control over his situation. As Marx stated that in a chiefly capitalist society, while some are meant to be the property owners, others are bound to be deprived of any kind of wealth or property. Poverty in itself is a vicious cycle, and as such the impoverished people pass over poverty from one generation to the other. The poor people cannot gain access to education, and as such th ey fail to get educated and qualified enough to secure employment opportunities for themselves. Lack of education leads to unemployment, and as a result, the impoverished people unknowingly enters in a relation of conflict with the people belonging to the higher strata of the society (Landes 2015). During the hard times that had hit Europe from 1975 to 1995, it was being noticed that a huge rate of unemployment had led to an increasing rate of theft and robbery (Altindag 2012). The uneducated youths, being poor were deprived of enjoying educational opportunities, and as such they spurred a massive tendency of theft, robbery and violence. School education is not only important in providing academic and formal education to the pupil that helps them to secure jobs, but is necessary for inculcating social values and ethical principles among them. The major problem with the poor people is that the poor kids are unable to gain access to education as well as the social skills, and hence they fail to learn the ideological concepts of right and wrong, or just and unjust (Kilday 2014). As a result, while on the one hand the widening gap of social inequality creates a sense of conflict, grudge and hostility among the poor people, on the other hand, lack of proper education fails to teach them the values necessary for resolving such disputes. According to the Conflict Theory, when people living in the same community are subject to witness stark distinctions, they may get provoked to rebel against the social inequality. Thus, the impoverished people living in the same community as the wealthier ones are more inclined to perpetrate acts of theft and robbery (Halvorsen 2015). Aristotle himself was found to echo the idea of the Conflict theory of criminology when he claimed that poverty is the parent of crime. Poverty and theft are thus intimately related to each other. Apart from the sociologists, many economists have also argued that income inequality is a major reason behind the perpetration of any sort of crime, such as theft and robbery. It has been observed that when a person belonging to the lower strata of the society is unable to improve his economic as well as social condition, he starts feeling envious of the higher concentration of economic wealth in the hands of a limited few, and the revolt against such a social structure leads to theft and robbery. Even the Deprivation theory of criminology also reinforces the same idea, as it upholds that when one is compelled to witness and gauge the financial position or his social status in comparison with that of others, he may feel deprived and humiliated. This leads to a sense of helplessness and utte r despondency among the poor people, and unable to find any way of enhancing their wealth or improving their economic condition, some of these people may think of robbing the richer. These people usually fail to find any sort of justice in the capitalist social structure, and as such they find no reason to opt for the just and morally right alternative (Elster 2015). It is important to state here that a study conducted by Reilly and Witt found out that as the gap of inequality started expanding in England and Wales, the total number of theft and burglaries committed also started increasing (Chintrakaram et al. 2012). According to the Forbes Magazine, the feeling of social deprivation ultimately guides an individual in his decision to steal and rob. When a person does not have sufficient food to eat, and yet he comes across people having abundant food, he finds ample justification for stealing. Again, similarly an individual, who does not have adequate money for paying bills, will never find the act of stealing a morally objectionable idea. A new study, claims the Forbes magazine, reveals that a feeling of social deprivation largely influences an individual to indulge in the act of stealing and robbing and burglary. According to Adam Alter, the assistant professor of marketing at New York University, when an individual feels a sense of financial d eprivation, he starts feeling alienated from the rest of the society (Barak et al. 2014). His inability to connect to the wider mass of people blurs his sense of moral responsibility and ethical actions. He suffers from a sense of inequality and injustice which in turn justifies his decision to steal (Arvanites 2014). The Conflict theory thus argues that the stark inequality in the distribution of wealth is chiefly responsible for the acts of theft and burglary. Keeping into consideration, the views of the Conflict theory, Italy has even announced a law which clearly states that a homeless, hungry man will not be penalized or punished in case he steals food. This law was passed recognizing the fact that a poor man is often compelled to resort to such social crimes due to the absence of a financially stable social structure (Masiola and Tomei 2015). The Conflict theory although does not justify the act of theft or burglary, yet it claims that inequality in the distribution of income is a major determinant of the increasing rate of criminal activities. According to the 2010 International Statistics on Crime and Justice Report, acts of theft which also include the acts of mugging, bag-snatching and theft with violence, were most commonly found in countries like America which have a higher level of inequality in the distribution of income and wealth (Akers 2013). Again, similarly, in the report submitted by the World Bank, in the year of 2002, economists like Pablo Fajnzylber and others have pointed out that crime rates and theft are closely and positively co-related factors. For example, USA which ranks third in terms of being the most income-unequal nation, and the worst in terms of income equality, has the largest number of population in prison (Gabbidon 2015). The Conflict theory talks of the sense of conflict that arises when an impoverished person suffers from a sense of despondency, rage or depression over the existent social structure that provides power and superiority to a class of people, and hunger and unemployment to another class. According to Marxism, such class distinction will inevitably lead to a sense of revolt and willingness to disrupt the social hierarchy. In a capitalist society, however, it is difficult to disrupt the hierarchical order and social harmony and hence a few people may show their own revolt against the social system, through the perpetration of criminal activities such as theft and robbery (Hagan 2012). Here, the Conflict theory may also be associated with the Strain Theory of criminology that claims that when an individual has been suffering from a sense of humiliation or low self-esteem, unable to achieve what he finds necessary to achieve, he often resorts to criminal offences like theft and burglary (Wa lsh et al. 2016). The Conflict theory intends to evaluate and explain the underlying reason behind the occurrence of criminal acts such as theft and burglary. It would be of course, very wrong and unjust to justify such act, yet it is necessary to know the underlying social reason before judging the moral nature of the offenders. The impoverished people often are negatively stereotyped by the social institutions and are not being provided with equal opportunities, and hence sociologists claim that they often suffer from shame and resentment which leads to criminal offences. However, creating equal opportunities for them so that at least they can gain access to educational resources and food can considerably help in reducing the growing rates of theft and burglary. Reference List: Akers, R.L., 2013.Criminological theories: Introduction and evaluation. Routledge. Altindag, D.T., 2012. Crime and unemployment: Evidence from Europe.International review of Law and Economics,32(1), pp.145-157. Arvanites, T., 2014. Cycles of poverty and crime in Americas inner cities by Lewis D. Solomon.Crime, Law and Social Change,61(3), pp.365-367. Barak, G., Leighton, P. and Cotton, A., 2014.Class, race, gender, and crime: The social realities of justice in America. Rowman Littlefield. Chintrakarn, P. and Herzer, D., 2012. More inequality, more crime? A panel cointegration analysis for the United States.Economics Letters,116(3), pp.389-391. Elster, J., 2015.Explaining social behavior: More nuts and bolts for the social sciences. Cambridge University Press. Gabbidon, S.L., 2015.Criminological perspectives on race and crime. Routledge. Hagan, F.E., 2012.Introduction to criminology: Theories, methods, and criminal behavior. Sage Publications. Halvorsen, J., 2015. Driven to Poverty: Misclassification Wage Theft in Southern Californias Short Haul Trucking Industry. Kilday, A.M., 2014. Criminally Poor? Investigating the Link Between Crime and Poverty in Eighteenth Century England.Cultural and Social History,11(4), pp.507-526. Landes, D.S., 2015.Wealth and poverty of nations. Hachette UK. Lanier, M.M., Henry, S. and Anastasia, D.J., 2014.Essential criminology. Perseus Books Group. Maddah, M., 2013. An empirical analysis of the relationship between unemployment and theft crimes.International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues,3(1), p.50. Masiola, R. and Tomei, R., 2015. A Global Crime and World Hunger. InLaw, Language and Translation(pp. 35-46). Springer International Publishing. Matthews, R.A. and Chambliss, W.J., 2014. Marxist criminology. InEncyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice(pp. 2989-2998). Springer New York. McShane, M. ed., 2013.An Introduction to Criminological Theory. Routledge. Reiman, J. and Leighton, P., 2015.The rich get richer and the poor get prison: Ideology, class, and criminal justice. Routledge. Taylor, I., Walton, P. and Young, J., 2013.The new criminology: For a social theory of deviance. Routledge. Vito, G.F. and Maahs, J.R., 2015.Criminology. Jones Bartlett Publishers. Walsh, S.N. and Johnson, A.K., 2016. Lest Voting Also Become Theft A Polemic on Inequality and the Justice of Surplus Voting.Political Research Quarterly Walsh, S.N. and Johnson, A.K., 2016. Lest Voting Also Become Theft A Polemic on Inequality and the Justice of Surplus Voting.Political Research Quarterly